Culture Of Kyrgyzstan
Customs and rituals of the Kyrgyz people. Traditional clothes. National home
The traditions of the Kyrgyz people, i.e. how the people traditionally live, which has been developing for centuries in their lives, which allowed them to remain, is always of interest to researchers, travelers and tourists. That reasonable sufficiency, accumulated for centuries in the way of life of the people, its culture, self-expression, now attracts to the region of Central Asia.
Nomadic lifestyle imposes its own conditions on human life. And this means that his housing should be adapted and comfortable for life. Therefore, the traditional dwelling of Kirghiz was a Yurt, which was based on a wooden frame arranged in a circle, which ended with a dome-shaped tent. In the center of the tent was a hole for smoke from the hearth, which in the winter was bred for heat in the Yurt. The walls of the Yurt were covered with mats of Chia (hard cereal), on top of which were superimposed thick pieces-plates of felt. Left of the entrance to the tent was the male half, which are items of men’s goods: saddles, harness for horses, items for hunting, etc. Right from the entrance was located in the female half. In the center of the Yurt was a hearth, behind which the wall on a wooden stand were the feet of blankets, chests. Carpets are a special decoration of the Yurt. The place is a hotbed of the most honored. On his right was occupied by the landlord or the guest of honor. For the winter Kyrgyz families gathered together, and in the spring broke up into groups and went to roam with the flock of animals to the Alpine pastures.
The dwellings of the Kirghiz, who live sedentary and engaged in agriculture, was a house folded their sun-dried bricks. Adobe brick was a clay mixed with finely chopped grass, dried in the sun. Felt carpets, wall panels with embroidery, chests for storage of things play an important role in the houses of Kirghiz, as before in the interior of the house. Traditionally, Kirghiz do a lot of work together. Near the house of Kyrgyz is a terrace, usually a grape vine, around the house has fruit trees, lots of flowers, located at a distance corrals.
Housing urban Kirghiz is usually sectional apartment, consisting usually of two, three, four rooms, Cabinet furniture stands along the walls, in the middle of the room on the floor and on the walls of carpets.
Clothing of the Kyrgyz has also been adapted for the conditions of life caused by the activity. It was a cotton print or coarse calico shirt, large pants with drawstring. On top of the shirt worn camisole, stitched fitted, in cold weather on top of which was worn a robe on cotton wool or homespun cloth. Winter clothing of the Kyrgyz people is a sheepskin coat and pants made of fleece fur inside. Shoes Kyrgyz – boots with soft soles without heels. Summer headdress of Kirghiz-a cap of thin, white felt with lapels-fields of black velvet. Winter headdress was a cap-ear flaps of sheep skins.
Traditional women’s clothing consisted of a long white shirt, which simultaneously served as a dress and long trousers, which were worn under the dress. A tank top or camisole was worn over the dress. Girls and young women have sleeveless jackets and camisoles made of colored velvet. Clothes married women consisted of a kind of skirt with a wide belt and bright embroidery, which was made of sheep skins, fur is inside. They were worn in the cold season. In the mind of the married women you can see a headdress-a turban of thin muslin, girls wore round hats trimmed with fluffy fur and decorated with feathers of eagle owl. Modern clothing of the Kyrgyz usual. This is a business suit for daily work, sportswear, sneakers, light dresses made of cotton and silk-women’s attire.
The social life of the Kyrgyz determined the nomadic way of life. The monotonous flow of life on the nomads broke the family celebrations, which were attended by all the inhabitants of the village. It was the birth of a boy, his circumcision, weddings, Wake accompanied by abundant treats.
A great event in ail was the arrival of storytellers and musicians, the performance of which was going to a lot of people. In winter men’s feasts were arranged, here they played the komuz (stringed musical instrument), played different games. The most important issues in the Kyrgyz decided sucks elders, the people traditionally adopted different forms of mutual assistance, both related and neighboring.
Kyrgyz families are usually large and lived together. The head of the family is the father, who managed all the property. The wife was deprived of the right to vote and did not own property. In case of death of the husband and children remained in the families of relatives. A widow would marry the brother of the deceased. The funeral rite was held on the day of the death, the deceased was buried in a shroud, on the grave put a mud structure such as a mausoleum. Wake on the deceased arranged for the third, seventh and fortieth day and a year after his death. On the woman funeral could not handle.
Traditionally, the leading place in the oral folk art of Kirghiz is an epic genre, the pearl of which is the heroic epic – the trilogy “Manas”, telling about the exploits of the hero Manas, his son semetei and grandson Seitek. The image of a Kyrgyz woman reflects the portrait of the beautiful Kanykey-the wife of Manas, smart, insightful, beautiful. The epic depicts the life of the Kirghiz, weddings, Wake, celebrations, family life.
A fascinating and exciting spectacle are the national games and sports of the Kyrgyz. You will be interested not only to see, but also to participate in them, to test their strength, agility and ingenuity.
Like many centuries ago, the favorite entertainment of the Kirghiz is hunting with birds of prey and horse competitions: horse racing, a duel of two riders on the peaks, horse wrestling, gambling, which competed boys and girls, “fight” for the carcass of a goat. Due to the prevailing conditions of life, the Kyrgyz since ancient times are excellent riders. Strength, courage, dexterity and skill of perseverance require competitions of horsemen “Alaman baiga” – jump 20-30 km and “Gorgo-sales” – racing of Pacers at 2-10 km, an exciting fight on horseback “Oodarysh”. But the most striking spectacle is the struggle of riders for the carcass, “Ulak tartysh” or “Kok Boru”, revealing the strength, courage, prowess and agility competing. Interesting equestrian game “Kyz Kuumai” (catch up with a girl), has long been common among Kyrgyz youth. The girl begins to jump a little earlier horseman who is bound to catch up with her and to touch the hand. In case the horseman does not catch up with the girl, he is eliminated from further competition. Only the most clever and brave to shoulder the most difficult of competitions on horses: “Jamba atmi” – shooting at full gallop at a target and “tyin Enmei” – ripping off at full gallop a coin from the ground that lies in the pit at a depth of 1.5-2 cm.
No national holiday or celebration can not do without the power contests of men which are very popular tug of war “Arkan tartmai” and belt wrestling “kuresh”. Participants “kuresh” come out in a circle, close together and take each other by the belt. You must comply with one of the conditions is not to keep your hands from the waist of the “enemy”. The winner is the one who put the opponent on both blades.
The folklore of the Kyrgyz people
Fans of folklore will be able to experience the wealth of the Kyrgyz folk instruments of the Kyrgyz, the Kyrgyz epic.
The Kyrgyz people have long been famous for their musicality. Kyrgyz people divide their music, rooted in the depths of centuries, into songs and Kyu. Kyu includes all musical works for folk instruments. The most popular musical instrument is the three-stringed plucked komuz. Popular two-stringed bow kyyak and reed Temir ooz komuz. Kyrgyz traditional music is solo music. Popular alternately, in the form of competitions, performances of musicians and singers.
Folklore in the past existed only orally. The performers took the music from each other by ear, at the same time becoming not only interpreters but also co-authors.
Folk songs make up a significant part of Kyrgyz musical creativity.
A special kind of song the Kyrgyz folklore is akyn singing. Bard – folk singer, improviser. Akyn accompanies his singing by playing the komuz.
Various genres of Kyrgyz folklore. Kyrgyz folklore, in addition to ritual poetry and lyrical genre, is richly represented by moral oral poetry, Proverbs and sayings, riddles and fairy tales, myths and legends. Kyrgyz songs are pleasant and melodious. Listen to Kyrgyz melodies and songs, they will bring joy and peace to your hearts.
The Kyrgyz Republic is known not only as a land of picturesque nature, but also as a country with an ancient original culture, with the remaining individual elements of the nomadic way of life, adjacent to the modern civilization.
Kyrgyz national cuisine is of particular interest to guests of the Republic, arriving from other countries and gives the trip a special flavor and attractiveness.
It is in food that ancient traditions of the people proved to be the most stable. One of the features of Kyrgyz cuisine is that the products mostly retain their natural appearance and taste. The main of them are meat, milk, vegetables and fruits, widely used flour products.
The most honorable place on the festive table is the national dish “beshbarmak” (five fingers). To enjoy its taste, it is possible only having tasted. Mare’s milk is used to prepare a wonderful drink koumiss, which is famous for its exceptional taste and healing properties. This drink heals people from many ailments, is also the champion in the content of vitamins.
National cuisine is widely represented in cafes and restaurants in every corner of the country.
Kyrgyz people are very hospitable-it is in the traditions of the peoples of the East. Any guest is welcome here. Traveling in Kyrgyzstan, will find here a lot of interesting and exciting and will be able to join the wonderful world of beauty of ancient and at the same time young Kyrgyzstan. Rest in the Yurt, where the peaks of the mountains, framed by Tien Shan fir trees, rest in the sky. Here the stars at night are especially big and bright. A refined taste of the famous beshbarmak, cooked on the fire, and the magnificent koumiss will long remain in memory. Of course, you can take part in Kyrgyz holidays and hunt with birds of prey. The impression the extraordinary.